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Glossary

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  • Ablation
    A medical in which tissue is removed by chemical  substances (chemoablation), extreme cold (cryoablation),  laser (photoablation) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA).
  • Abnormal
    unusual, not normal
  • Activin receptor-like kinase 1, ALK1
    A protein found on blood vessel cells. Crizotinib® (generic name: Crizotinib) is a ALK1 inhibitor that inhibits the formation of new blood vessels around the tumor.
  • Acute
    Develops quickly.
  • Adenocarcinoma
    Malignant tumor in the form of a gland created from epithelial cell tissue that release mucus, digestive juices, saliva, etc. Adenocarcinoma is common in breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer.
  • Adenoma
    A benign (non cancerous) epithelial growth with a structure of a gland.
  • Adjuvant
    Treatment given to a patient to increase the therapeutic effect of a different treatment, such as surgery or radiotherapy. Typically, adjuvant is a chemotherapy treatmnet that is given after the first treatment in order to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.  
  • Advanced Disease
    The disease worsens. For example, when the tumor grows in size and / or new metastasis has been created that did not appear before.
  • Adverse Effect, Side Effect
    Adverse Event, also called “Side Efeect” is an undesirable phenomenon that is caused to a patient as a result of treatment.
  • Alopecia
    Lack of hair from places in the body where there is usually hair. Hair loss can be caused by anti-cancer treatments.
  • Analgestic
    Pain killers
  • Anaplasia (Anaplastic)
      A condition in which cells lose their morphological characteristics of mature cells.  
  • Androgen
    Hormones responsible for male sex characteristics eg testosterone. Androgen receptors (receptors) play an important role in the development of prostate cancer.
  • Anemia
    Decreased red blood cells (erythrocytes) or hemoglobin (a protein in the red blood cells responsible for oxygen binding). The cancerous mour and / or anti-cancer treatment can cause anemia.
  • Anesthetic
    A procedure designed to suppress the nervous system in order to allow treatment without causing pain while maintaining proper body function. A general practitioner may perform local anesthesia, while the general anesthesia is performed by an expert anesthesiologist.
  • Angiogenesis
    Blood vessels grow. In cancer, a blood vessel system forms around the tumor and supplies it an energy and oxygen
  • Anti
    Opposed to, against.
  • Anti Androgen Treatment
    The aim of the treatment is to reduce the levels of male hormones, called androgens, in the body, or to prevent them from affecting cancer cells such as prostate cancer that stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow
  • Anti Angiogenesis
    Treatments that inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. Tumors survive and thrive in the body by causing the body to create around thhttps://trial-in.com/wp-admin/edit.php?post_type=glossaryem a vascular system that nourishes them and supplies them with oxygen.
  • Antibody
    Proteins that bind specifically to antigens (molecules identified by the immune system). For example, an antibody called Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) identifies the HER2 antigen, which is often found at a high level on the outer side of the surface of cancer cells.
  • Anticoagulant
    Substances that inhibit the process of blood clotting
  • Antigen
    Any substance that causes the body to produce an immune response against this substance. Antigens include toxins, chemicals, bacteria, viruses or other substances that come from outside the body. There are antigens on the tissues of the body and cells, including cancer cells, which when(...)
  • Antioxidant
    Oxidation is a chemical reaction that produces free radicals that may damage cells in the human body. Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the formation of free radicals that can transform normal cells into cancer cells.
  • Aromatase
    An enzyme that participates in the synthesis of estrogen. Aromatase is found in many tissues such as brain, placenta, fat tissue, and more.
  • Aromatase Inhibitors
    Inhibit estrogen production in the body by inhibiting the aromatase enzyme responsible for producing estrogen. Aramex (generic name: Anastrozole, commercial name: Arimidex®), Aromasin (generic name: Exemestane), and Femara® (generic name: Letrozole, trade name: Femera®) are aromatase(...)
  • athology Report
    A report  written by a pathologist with findings from a biopsy diagnosis under a microscope.
  • Axilla
    An area under the shoulder through which blood vessels and nerves enter and go out to the arm. A lump in the armpit can indicate an enlarged lymph node.
  • Axillary dissection
    Excision of the axillary glands. In breast cancer, tumor cells can spread into the the lymph nodes of the armpit, therefore, axillary dissection has until recently been considered an integral part of breast cancer surgery. Today, sentinel node biopsy can estimate whether axillary dissection(...)
  • Benign
    Not cancerous. The cells in a benign tumor do not damage the tissue in which they are present and do not metastasize.
  • Bilateral cancer
    Cancer that appears in two pairs of organs simultaneously such as breasts, ovaries, eyes, lungs, etc.
  • Biologics
    Class of medications that include immunotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, cancer growth inhibitors and vaccines. Herceptin® , Avastin®, Lynparza® and Keytruda® are biological drugs.
  • Biomarker
    A molecule in the blood, other body fluids, or tissue that is a marker for a normal or abnormal process, such as a disease. Biomarker may be used to see how much the body responds to a certain treatment. For example, HER2 , when overexpressed, is a biomarker for cancer cells.
  • Biopsy
    Removal of tissue from the body for pathological diagnosis in the laboratory.
  • Biosimilar
    A biological drug  that acts as an original biological drug. The term “biosimilar”replaces the term "generic" used in traditional drugs.
  • Blood-brain barrier (BBB)
    Membrane which envelopes the brain and prevents penetration or entry of various chemicals into the brain, and that also includes drugs. Its purpose is not to allow harmful substances to reach the brain. Chemotherapy for brain tumors goes through this barrier.
  • Bolus
    Rapid administration of a drug into the body.
  • Bone Marrow
    A tissue usually found in the bones where blood cells are generated
  • Bone Marrow Biopsy
    Bone marrow is a spongy tissue within the bones where red blood cells, platelets, cartilage, fat cells and bone cells are produced. Bone marrow biopsy is performed under local anesthesia, using a needle that is usually inserted into the femur. The biopsy is sent to the laboratory to check for(...)
  • Bone Scan
    An imaging test in which a radioactive marker (Tracer) is injected into the vein to diagnose various types of bone disease or bone tumor presence. The marking material is absorbed especially in areas where there is a great deal of bone dissociation or bone building. The radiation emitted from(...)
  • Brachytherapy
    A type of radiotherapy in which radiation source is placed in or near the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat cancer of the cervix cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, tongue cancer and skin cancer, and can also be used to treat tumors in other parts of the body.
  • BRAF
    Protein in a cell that participates in cell division processes and is also an oncogen. BRAF mutations appear in different cancers. The drugs and Moraphenib (generic name: Vemurafenib, trade name: Zelboraf®) and Debrafenib (generic name: Tafinlar®) are given to patients with mutations in BRAF.
  • BRCA1
    A protein responsible for DNA repair. When BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are damaged (e.g. mutation) the chances of getting breast cancer increases. BRCA1, BRCA2 = BReast CAncer gene
  • BRCA1, BRCA2
    A protein responsible for DNA repair. When BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are damaged (e.g. mutation) the chances of getting breast cancer increases. BRCA1, BRCA2 = BReast CAncer gene
  • BRCA1
    A protein responsible for DNA repair. When BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are damaged (e.g. mutation) the chances of getting breast cancer increases. BRCA1, BRCA2 = BReast CAncer gene
  • Colon Cancer
    A condition in which intestine cells divide uncontrollably. Often this cancer starts with a growth of a polyp in the intestine. Locating and removing polyps may prevent the appearance of colon cancer and this is the reason for the importance of early detection. Also known as “Bowel cancer”(...)
  • Breast Cancer
    A condition in which breast cells in the body divide uncontrollably. The disease is classified according to the breast cells from which it develops.
  • Breast-conserving Surgery (Lumpectomy)
    Surgical removal only of breast tumor and its margins. This is in contrast to complete mastectomy (a mastectomy)
  • CA 125
    This marker is a protein called MUC1, which is normally present in mucous membranes and protects the body from foreign factors. A high blood level of the CA 125 marker may indicate ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or other cancers.
  • Cancer
    A condition in which cells in the body divide uncontrollably.
  • Cancer of Unknown Primary – CUP
    A condition in which the metastases can be identified but the primary tumor from which they have spread cannot be identified.
  • Cannabinoids
    The leaves and flowers in their dry form of the cannabis sativa and cannabis indica plants. Cannabis contains chemicals called cannabinoids, the most famous of which are THC, CBD and CBN. Marijuana is given to cancer patients mainly to stimulate appetite, increase weight, reduce nausea,(...)
  • Cannabis
    The leaves and flowers in their dry form of the cannabis sativa and cannabis indica plants. Cannabis contains chemicals called cannabinoids, the most famous of which are THC, CBD and CBN. Marijuana is given to cancer patients mainly to stimulate appetite, increase weight, reduce nausea,(...)
  • CAR-T
    CAR-T therapy is an innovative treatment strategy based on genetic engineering of the patient’s own immune cells, T cells. CAR-T therapy is being investigated in a number of cancer types and brings great hope to many patients as more and more publications on its efficacy in cancer are released.
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen
    Carcinoembryonic antigen ( (CEA) is glycoprotein (a protein with sugar groups attached to it) that is usually found in very low levels in blood of healthy adults. CEA blood levels can be increased in Venous thrombosis is common in cancer patients. pain killer. choice in monitoring the(...)
  • Carcinogen
    A substance that raises the risk of cancer.
  • Carcinoma
    A cancerous tumor originating from epithelial cells. Cells in carcinoma have an ability to penetrate the healthy tissue and produce metastases.
  • Carcinoma In-situ
    A cancerous tumor originating from epithelial cells. The tumor is still local and has not metastasized.
  • Cardial
    Related to the heart.
  • Cardiotoxicity
    Damage to the heart or function that can be caused, for example, by exposure to toxic substances such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiation
  • Case report
    A case study is an advertisement in the medical press, which deals with a single case of the same researchers in depth. The scientific literature is full of case studies, as opposed to clinical cases, for example, which investigate large groups from which statistical data can also be obtained.
  • Cerebral Spinal Fluid, CSF
     
  • Cerebral Spinal Fluid, CSF
    A clear, colorless liquid that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • Cervical cancer
    Cervical cancer is the sixth cancer prevalent among women. One of the main causes for the disease is the Human Papilloma Virus, HPV, which causes warts on the female genitalia. The Gardasil® vaccine is used against the Papilloma virus with the goal to prevent infection with women, and the(...)
  • Chemoradiotherapy
    Treatment combining chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy
    Medications that damage the cells divide into the body. Also called "chemo" briefly. Unlike surgery or radiation, chemotherapy works all over the body and is not focused. This means that it can eliminate cancerous lesions, such as metastasis, that have developed in various organs of the body.(...)
  • Clinical Trial
    Studies, also called “Clinical Trials” on human beings are necessary in order to collect information mainly on the safety and efficacy of an innovative treatment. Usually a clinical trial consists of three phases. The first, second, and third phases are usually different from each other in the(...)
  • Colonoscopy
    A test used for early detection of colon cancer. During the test, a colonoscope (thin tube with a camera) is inserted through the anus, rectum and colon.
  • Colorectal Cancer
    A condition in which intestine or rectum cells divide uncontrollably. Often this cancer starts with a growth of a polyp in the intestine or in the rectum. Locating and removing polyps may prevent the appearance of colon cancer and this is the reason for the importance of early(...)
  • Colostomy
    An operation usually performed after rectal removal (rectum) or the lower part of the colon. During the operation, a portion of the colon is brought to the abdominal wall and creates an artificial opening (stoma) that allows the stool to be emptied into a skin-tight bag temporarily or permanently.
  • Colostomy
    An operation usually performed after rectal removal (rectum) or the lower part of the colon. During the operation, a portion of the colon is brought to the abdominal wall and creates an artificial opening (stoma) that allows the stool to be emptied into a skin-tight bag temporarily or permanently.
  • Combination therapy
    A treatment containing several drugs that work in different mechanisms.
  • Comorbidity
     
  • Compassionate drug
    A way to provide medical care to a patient who is not eligible for treatment by participating in a clinical trial, but who has a serious or life-threatening illness for which other treatments are not available. This extended approach allows the patient to receive promising anti-cancer(...)
  • Compassionate use
    A way to provide medical care to a patient who is not eligible for treatment by participating in a clinical trial, but who has a serious or life-threatening illness for which other treatments are not available. This extended approach allows the patient to receive promising anti-cancer(...)
  • Complementary Medicine
    Traditional holistic medicine originating from ancient cultures. This medicine focuses on strengthening the connection between body and mind. The conventional health system has integrated complementary therapies such as homeopathy, energetic healing, acupuncture, herbal medicine and more.
  • Complete Response
    Complete reduction or disappearance of cancer symptoms. In partial remission some of the symptoms disappear as opposed to a complete remission in which all symptoms disappear, although the cancerous tumor may still be present in the body.
  • Continuous infusion
     
  • Control group
    In a clinical trial, it is the group that does not accept the new treatment being studied, but the standard treatment at the time. This group is compared to the group receiving the new treatment to see if the new treatment is more effective than the standard treatment. The control group can(...)
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
    Clinical trial including a comparison group (control group). The control group may receive placebo, other treatment, or no treatment at all.
  • COX-2 Inhibitors
    Molecules belonging to the class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that inhibit COX2 enzyme, which is involved in inflammation and pain processes. It was found that this enzyme is also involved in the growth of cancer cells. The FDA has approved a drug called "Celebrex" for FAP,(...)
  • Creatinine
    Creatinine levels are measured to monitor renal function. Excreted in the urine.
  • CT
    n imaging procedure in which a computer is connected to an X-ray machine and creates a series of detailed pictures of different areas of the body. Each tissue in the body absorbs radiation and returns radiation differently. The pictures are taken from different angles and are then processed to(...)
  • cystoscopy
    Examination of the bladder and urethra using a cytoscope inserted into the urethra. A cystoscope is a thin tube-like device with light and a viewable lens. A biopsy can be used with the help of the cytoscope. The test has many uses, including checking the presence of cancerous tumors and monitoring.
  • Cytokine
     
  • Cytokine
    Proteins which are secreted in the body and immune system cells. Some cytokines stimulate the immune system and others slow it down. Cytokines have many uses, and they can help the body fight cancer, infections and other diseases. Examples of cytokines are: interleukins and interferons. Today(...)
  • Cytology
    Cell research using a biopsy microscope or body fluids such as urine
  • Cytotoxic
    Toxic. Chemotherapy can be cytotoxic, which is toxic to the body. In general, any substance may have a cytotoxic (toxic) effect, depending on dosage.
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, CTLA4
    CTLA-4 is a protein found on cytotoxic T cells of the immune system, designed to control cells and prevent them from harming normal cells, thus preventing autoimmune and allergic diseases. In cancer patients, CTLA-4 expression causes cytotoxic T cells not to act against cancer cells. For(...)
  • Debuking
    Tumour removal by surgery in order to increase the efficacy of another treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation.
  • DNA
    The DNA is made up of two chains that form a double helix. The DNA contains genetic information. During cell division, the DNA replicated and each new daughter cell receives one copy of each DNA strand.
  • Ductal Carcinoma
    The most common type of breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma tumor starts in the cells that line the milk ducts (a duct tha transfers milk from the lobules to the nipple). Dectal carcinoma can be localized (without metastases) and then called inactivated carcinoma (DCIS). When the cancer cells have(...)
  • Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ, DCIS
     
  • Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ, DCIS
    The most common type of breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma tumor starts in the cells that line the milk ducts (a duct that transfers milk from the lobules to the nipple). Dectal carcinoma can be localized (without metastases) and then called inactivated carcinoma (DCIS).
  • Dysplasia
    When cells look abnormal under a microscope but are not cancerous.
  • Edema
    Swelling due to excess fluids in the tissue.
  • Emesis
    Vomiting
  • Endocrine Therapy
    See Hormonal Therapy value.
  • Endocrine Therapy
    Hormonal Therapy
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio pancreatography, ERCP
    A procedure that allows the physitian to examine the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla and gallbladder by inserting an endoscope through the mouth into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the(...)
  • Endoscopy
    A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine the the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. An endoscope is a thin tube-like device with light and a viewable lens. An endoscope is also used to remove a biopsy for further examination under a microscope for signs of disease.
  • Enteral
    Through the digestive system. The delivery of an anteral drug is given through the digestive system. Methods of administration include oral, sublingual (dissolving the drug under the tongue), and rectal.
  • Epidemiology
    A branch of medicine which deals with the distribution and control of diseases.
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, EGFR
    A receptor found on many cells that is the receptor of the EGF growth hormone. When EGFR binds to the EGFR receptor, there will be an increase in the EGFR level on the cancerous cell.
  • Epithelial Overian Carcinoma
    Most common ovarian cancer, about 90% of all ovarian cancers. This cancer originates in the layer of epithelium in the ovary walls.
  • Epithelium (epithelial cells)
    Tissues in the human body are integrated from different types of cells. Epithelial cells, that that cover the surfaces of the body that come into contact with the exterior world. These cells are found, for example, in the skin, mouth and nose.
  • ERBB2, HER2, HER-2
    A protein involved in cellular processes such as angiogenesis , differentiation, growth, and more. HER2 can be found in high levels in breast, ovarian, bladder, pancreas and stomach cancers and cause cancer cells grow faster and spread. At the present, a number of biological drugs exist that(...)
  • Erythrocyte
    Physical examination of the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubular tubes, ovaries and anus. Vagina examination is performed by inserting a speculum device to expand the vagina and cervix. The collected samples can be used for a Pap test, or for testing sexually transmitted diseases or other(...)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR
    Blood test that measures how far red blood cells travel in one hour in a blood sample as they settle into the bottom of the tube. The rate of ESR increases with inflammation, infection, and also in cancer. Also called sedimentation rate.
  • erythropoietin
    Hormone produced and secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. For example, Epoetin alfa (Generic name: Epoetin alpha, trade name: BINOCRIT®) and Epoetin beta (Generic name: Epoetin beta, trade name: RECORMON®) are the synthetic version (produced in(...)
  • ESMO
    European Society for Medical Oncology is the leading professional organisation for medical oncology with 20,000 members representing oncology professionals from over 150 countries worldwide.
  • Esophagectomy
    PartiPartial removal of the esophagus depends on the disease stagesVal
  • Esophagus
    A muscular tube belonging to the digestive system that connects the pharynx (the lower part of the throat) to the stomach.
  • ESR
    Blood test that measures how far red blood cells travel in one hour in a blood sample as they settle into the bottom of the tube. The rate of ESR increases with inflammation, infection, and also in cancer. Also called “Sedimentation Rate”
  • Estrogen
    Hormones produced in the woman body that help develop and maintain the characteristics of female sex and the growth of long bones. Esteriol, for example, is a type of estrogen. Estrogens bind to the estrogen receptor (Estrogen Receptor, ER). 80% of breast cancer patients are ER positive,(...)
  • Estrogen Receptor Negative, ER+
    When cells in the patient express a low level of estrogen, suggesting that the cause of tumour growth is not dependent on the hormone estrogen.
  • Estrogen Receptor Positive, ER+
    Estrogen receptor positive cells express high levels of estrogen receptors. In such a situation, the treatment may consist, among other things, of aromatase inhibitors that inhibit estrogen production.
  • Estrogen Receptor Test
    A laboratory test to see if cancer cells have estrogen receptors (proteins in the cell to which estrogen binds). If the cells have estrogen receptors, they may need estrogen to grow, which may affect how cancer is treated.
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy, ERT
    Treatment with estrogen hormone to increase the amount of estrogen in the body. This treatment is given to women who have passed menopause or to women who have menopausal symptoms preceded by anti-cancer treatments or surgery to remove the ovaries. Estrogen replacement therapy may relieve(...)
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy, ERT
    tment with estrogen hormone to increase the amount of estrogen in the body. This treatment is given to women who have passed menopause or to women who have menopausal symptoms preceded by anti-cancer treatments or surgery to remove the ovaries. Estrogen replacement therapy may relieve symptoms(...)
  • External Beam Radiation, EBT
    External radiation therapy (EBT) in which high-energy X-rays is provided to the patient's tumor. This is in contrast to brachytherapy (see value) where the source of radiation is introduced into the tumor area, for example with a catheter
  • False Positive
    A result measured and determined as true but in fact the result is wrong, it is not real.
  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, FAP
    A hereditary condition in which many polyps (see polyp value) are grown on the inner walls of the colon and rectum. Polyps can become cancerous. This condition increases the risk of developing colon cancer.
  • Familial Cancer
    Cancer is seen in families more often than was randomly expected (coincidence). This cancer often occurs at a young age, and may indicate the presence of a genetic mutation that increases the risk of cancer. It also constitutes a sign of environmental factors affecting life in a common environment
  • Fatigue
    Exhaustion
  • FDA - Food and Drug Administration
    A US federal agency that aims to protect public health by ensuring that food, cosmetics and nutritional supplements are safe to use and honestly labeled.The FDA also ensures that medicines, medical devices, and equipment are safe and effective, as well as clinical studies after examining all(...)
  • Fecal Occult Blood Test, FOBT
    A hidden blood test in the stool. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colon cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers or hemorrhoids.
  • Fine Needle Aspiration
    A process I which a fine needle is used to drain a fluid from the tumor. Usually performed under anesthesia.
  • First Line Treatment
    The first treatment series given to the patient after diagnosis. Called "First Line".
  • Folate, Folic Acid
    Folic acid is part of the vitamin B complex that the body needs for small amounts of healthy functioning. Folic acid helps produce red blood cells and is found in milk, whole grains, liver, green vegetables, orange juice, lentils, beans, and yeast. Folic acid is soluble in water and should be(...)
  • Food and Drug Administration
    Food and Drug Administration is a US federal agency that aims to protect public health by ensuring that food, cosmetics and nutritional supplements are safe to use and honestly labeled.The FDA also ensures that medicines, medical devices, and equipment are safe and effective, as well as(...)
  • Food and Drug Administration, FDA
    A US federal agency that aims to protect public health by ensuring that food, cosmetics and nutritional supplements are safe to use and honestly labeled.The FDA also ensures that medicines, medical devices, and equipment are safe and effective, as well as clinical studies after examining all(...)
  • Free Radical
    Free radicals are un unstable molecules that are usually produced in the bodies during the process of cell metabolism. Free radicals can accumulate in cells and damage other molecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. The dammages caused by free radicals increases the risk of cancer and(...)
  • Frozen Section Biopsy
    Rapid test for cancer cells detection. The biopsy is removed from the patients’ body by the surgeon who is then giving it  to a pathologist who then freezes the biopsy and slices it into thin slices and examines the slices under the microscope.
  • Gastrectomy
    Stomach removal. The removal can be complete or partial
  • Gastric cancer
    Gastric cancer, also called “Stomach cancer”, starts when some of the cells constituting the inner part of the stomach start growing and proliferating without control. This abnormal growth creates a tumor that is cancerous. Usually gastric cancer grows slowly, along a course of many years.  
  • Gastro-intestinal Stromal Tumor, GIST
    A type of tumor that usually originates from cells in the wall of the digestive system. The tumor can be benign or malignant.
  • Gastroenterology
    A branch of medicine that deals with the digestive system and diseases related to the digestive system.
  • Gastroscopy
    Examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach and duodenum). During the examm, a small camera  located at the tip  of a flexible tube, is inserted through the mouth  called a gastroscope
  • Gene
    A fragment in the DNA strand that encodes physiological features, for example, eye color. The genes genes are inherited upon cell division when the DNA molecule replicates, and each new cell receives a copy of the replicated DNA.
  • Generic
    Official nonbrand names of drugs
  • Genetic Counselor
    Diagnoses and advises on genetic diseases.
  • Genetic Testing
    The process of analyzing the DNA of cells or tissues to look for genetic changes that may be a sign of a disease such as cancer.
  • Genome
    The full system of all the genes in an organism. In humans, all genes are located on structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes are complexes of DNA and proteins bind to each other. Almost every cell in the body contains a complete copy of the genome. The genome contains all the information a(...)
  • Gliadel®
    Gliadel® Wafer is carmustine implant that is indicated for patients with newly diagnosed high-grade malignant glioma as an adjunct to surgery and radiation. Gliadel® Wafer is also indicated in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme as an adjunct to surgery. The implant It is placed on(...)
  • GBM
    Glioblastoma Multiforme, or GBM, is a type of cancer which originates in the brain and made of brain cells known as “gliomas.”
  • Glioblastoma
    Glioblastoma Multiforme, or GBM, is a type of cancer which originates in the brain and made of brain cells known as “gliomas.”
  • Glioma
    A type of a brain cancer that develops from glial cells that support neurons (cells of the nervous system).
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor , G-CSF, GCSF
    GCSF Promotes the formation of white blood cells in the bone marrow. Chemotherapy drugs can cause neutropenia, which can cause infections. The drug Pilgrims (synthetic GCSF manufactured in the laboratory) is given in this condition. Generic Name: Filgrastim Trade Name: Neupogen®, Granix®, Zarxio
  • Growth Hormone
    A protein produced and secreted by the pituitary gland that is responsible for controlling body growth and glucose and gat metabolism.
  • Hand and foot syndrome(HFS)
    Pain, swelling, numbness, tingling, or redness of the hands or feet. Sometimes it happens as a side effect of certain anti-cancer drugs. Also called foot syndromeת or Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia
  • Head and Neck Cancer
    A cancer located in the head or neck area but not in the brain, i.e. in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands or throat (voice box).
  • Hematopoiesis
    The process in whoch blood cells are formed
  • Hemoglobin
    A protein found in red blood cells that binds oxygen when they move from the lungs to the rest of the body. When red blood cells move from tissues back to the lungs, hemoglobin binds carbon dioxide.
  • Heparin
    A substance that slows the formation of blood clots. Heparin is produced for example by the liver and lungs. Synthetic heparin (which is produced not in the body but rather in the laboratory) can be injected into the muscle or blood to prevent or break blood clots. It is a type of anticoagulant.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
    Cancer that begins in the immune system cells. There are two basic subtypes of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma, which is indicated by the presence of a cell type called Reed-Sternberg and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large and diverse group of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin(...)
  • Hormonal Therapy, Hormone Treatment
    A treatment that increases or decreases the level of certain hormones in a body whose level of imbalance can cause cancer (such as prostate cancer and breast cancer). To slow or stop the growth of cancer, you can give synthetic hormones or other drugs to block the body's natural hormones.(...)
  • Hormonal Therapy, Hormone Treatment
    A treatment that increases or decreases the level of certain hormones in a body whose level of imbalance can cause cancer (such as prostate cancer and breast cancer). To slow or stop the growth of cancer, you can give synthetic hormones or other drugs to block the body's natural hormones.(...)
  • Hormone
    Molecules (usually small proteins) that are secreted from glands in the body and regulate various processes in the body. Increased hormone production (eg, growth hormones) can cause cancer.
  • Hormone replacement therapy, HRT
    Treatment with hormones to replace the natural hormones when the body does not produce them enough. For example, hormone replacement therapy may be given when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone or when the pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormone.(...)
  • hormone replacement therapy, HRT
    Treatment with hormones to replace the natural hormones when the body does not produce them enough. For example, hormone replacement therapy may be given when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone or when the pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormone.(...)
  • HER2
    Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2, HER2, HER2/neu - A protein involved in cellular processes such as angiogenesis, differentiation, growth, and more. Her2 can be found in high levels in breast, ovarian, bladder, pancreas and stomach cancers and cause cancer cells grow faster and spread(...)
  • Hyperalimentation,Total Parenteral Nutrition, TPN
    Intravenous feeding given to people who are unable to consume food through the digestive system due to vomiting, diarrhea or intestinal diseases. It can also be given to patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Hypernephroma
    The most common type of kidney cancer. The cancer starts with the renal tubule that filters the blood to produce urine.
  • Hyperplasia
    Increase in the number of normal cells in the tissue. These cells look normal under the microscope. They are not cancerous but may become one.
  • Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy, HIPEC
    An procedure in which chemotherapy is administered directly to the abdominal cavity during surgery. This treatment can be beneficial to patients with primary tumors, for example in the ovaries and intestines that have metastasized to the lining of the stomach.
  • Hysterectomy
    Hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman's uterus
  • Hysterectomy
    Hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman's uterus
  • Idiopathic
    From unknown source
  • Imaging
    Using imaging tools to take pictures of organs and tissues for diagnosis. Common imaging devices are MRI, CT and ultrasound.
  • Immune Check Point
    Immune immune barriers are the regulators of the immune system. These pathways are essential for tolerance processes and prevent autoimmune diseases, ie, those pathways that prevent the immune system from acting against the body itself. In cancer, these pathways are activated and as a result,(...)
  • Immune Check Points inhibitors
    Also called "immunotherapy" of drugs that help the immune system attack the tumor. This contrasts, for example, with chemotherapy that directly affects tumor cells. Examples of immunotherapy drugs are Keytruda® and Opdivo®
  • Immune Response
    The body's response to foreign substances entering it, for example bacteria. The body identifies antigens molecules molecules (eg proteins, sugars) belonging to the invading organism. The immune system, for example, can identify proteins on the virus's envelope and act against them by(...)
  • Immune System
    A complex system of cells (such as lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes) and organs (eg, spleen, bone marrow, thymus gland, etc.) aimed at fighting invasive organisms.
  • Immunotherapy
    Immunotherapy drugs assist the immune system in attacking the tumor. The immune system has “immune barriers” which serve to regulate the immune system and prevent it from attacking the body. In cancer these functions are readily activated and as a result, the immune system ceases to attack(...)
  • in-situ
    Local. When the tumour remains in the tissue from which it was originated and has not yet metastasized or migrated to other tissues.
  • Indolent
    Idolant cancer develops slowly.
  • Induction
    Induction is the first treatment given to a patient. This is often a standard part of a series of treatments, such as surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Infection
    The invasion and growth of a foreign organism into the body. The organism can be a bacterium, fungus, virus or other. When the immune system functions normally, the body recognizes and responds to the foreign entity in order to prevent its spread. . Anti-cancer treatments can weaken the immune(...)
  • Inflammation
    Redness, swelling, pain and / or feeling of heat in a particular area of the body. This is a protection reaction in cases of injury, disease or irritation of the tissues.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer
    A type of breast cancer in which the breast looks red, bloated and feels warm. Peau d'orange-like appearance. The redness and warmth occur because the cancer cells block the lymphatic vessels in the skin.
  • Infusion
    Fluid delivery into the body through the vein
  • Interferon
    A protein, type of cytokinein group plays an important role in the immune system
  • Interleukin (IL)
    A protein, type of cytokinein group plays an important role in the immune system
  • Intermittent Infusion
    Infusion of volume of liquid containing drug or nutrients over a specified period of time at preset intervals. The infusion stops until the next dose.
  • Intracavitary Radiation Therapy
    A type of radiotherapy in which radiation source is placed in or near the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat cancer of the cervix cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, tongue cancer and skin cancer, and can also be used to treat tumors in other parts of the body.
  • Intracavitary Radiation Therapy
    A type of radiotherapy in which radiation source is placed in or near the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat cancer of the cervix, prostate, breast, tongue and skin, and can also be used to treat tumors in other parts of the body
  • Invasive Cancer Infiltrating Cancer
    A cancer that grows beyond the tissue from which it was originated and penetrates into nearby healthy tissues.
  • Irreversible Toxicity
    Side effects from treatment that do not disappear.
  • Karnofsky Performance Status, KPS
    A method scaled from 0 to 100 to assess the functioning and ability of cancer patients to perform normal tasks. For example, this scale can be used to determine the patient's prognosis or to decide whether to offer treatment or to recommend a clinical trial.
  • Laparoscope
    A thin pipe-like device with light and a lens. The laparoscope can be used as a tissue removal tool for further examination under a microscope.
  • Laparoscopy
     
  • Leptomeningeal Cancer
    When the cancer cells spread from the original (primary) tumor to the brain membrane (thin layers of tissue covering the brain and spinal cord). It can occur in many types of cancer, but it is most common in melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. Cancer can(...)
  • Leptomeningeal metastase, LM
    When cancer cells from the primary tumor spread to the meninges.
  • leukemia
    Leukemia is a cancer of the blood tissue, including bone marrow and the lymphatic system. There are many types of leukemia, some of which are more common in children and some in adults. Leukemia usually results from the white blood cells
  • Leukocyte
    White blood cells that produced in the bone marrow and are found in the blood and lymphatic tissues and are part of the immune system. Leukocytes are granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils), monocytes and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). Blood leukocyte count is usually(...)
  • leukopenia
    Low number of blood cells.
  • LHRH Agonist
    A class of drugs that prevent the testes and ovaries from producing sex hormones. These drugs are given as a treatment for prostate cancer, for example, against tumors that developed in response to testosterone hormone.  Among women, the drugs will block the production of estrogen and progesterone.
  • liposarcoma
    A sarcoma type of cancer from fat tissue.
  • Lobectomy
    Surgery to remove a complete lobe from the penis. For example, lobe from the liver, lungs, brain.
  • Lobular Carcinoma In-Situ, LCIS
    Local growth (without metastasis) located in the milk production glands.
  • Local Cancer
    A tumor which has not yet spread.
  • Local Treatment
    Treatment of a specific organ or treatment limited to a specific area of the body. Local cancer treatment is surgery, radiotherapy, cryotherapy and laser therapy.
  • Locally Advanced Cancer
    A cancer that has spread to the tissue adjacent to the tissue from which it was originated or to the lymph nodes
  • Lower GI Series
    A series of X-rays of the colon after barium enema.
  • Lumbar Puncture, Spinal Tap
    A procedure in which a thin needle called a needle is inserted into the lower part of the spine to collect spinal fluid or give medication
  • Lumpectomy
    Partial breast removal according to tumor size. Removal can be up to 50% of breast size
  • Lymph Node
    Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system which is made up of glands and tubes. Fluid from tissues in the body reaches the lymph nodes that filter and clean it. The lymph nodes also contain lymphocytes (mostly B cells and T cells) that reach the body's various tissues when needed, for(...)
  • Lymph Node
    Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system which is made up of glands and tubes. Fluid from tissues in the body reaches the lymph nodes that filter and clean it. The lymph nodes also contain lymphocytes (mostly B cells and T cells) that reach the body's various tissues when needed, for(...)
  • Lymph Node Dissection
    A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed to prevent the spread of the tumor. Surgery can be regional or radical. In regional dissection, some glands are removed, usually those who are close to the tumor. In a radical dissection, all or most or all the lymph nodes in the tumor(...)
  • lymph node mapping
    Since tumor cells can spread through the lymphatic system, it is necessary to check whether the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node in the lymphatic system to which the tumor drains) is infected with cancer cells. The sentinel lymph node is identified by injecting a radioactive substance(...)
  • lymphadenectomy
    A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed to prevent the spread of the tumor. Surgery can be regional or radical. In regional dissection, some glands are removed, usually those who are close to the tumor. In a radical dissection, all or most or all the lymph nodes in the tumor(...)
  • Lymphatic Dissection
    A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed to prevent the spread of the tumor. Surgery can be regional or radical. In regional dissection, some glands are removed, usually those who are close to the tumor. In a radical dissection, all or most or all the lymph nodes in the tumor(...)
  • Lymphatic System
    A system of tubes and glands that stores and carries white blood cells that fight infection. This system includes the bone marrow, the spleen, the thymus, the lymph nodes, and the lymphatic tubes similar to the blood vessels, which also reach all the tissues in the body.
  • Lymphedema
    Damage to the lymphatic system, such as lymph node removal, can cause the accumulation of lymph fluid in the organs. Edema in the legs and arms are common but can also be found in other parts of the body.
  • lymphedema
    Damage to the lymphatic system, such as lymph node removal, can cause the accumulation of lymph fluid in the organs. Edema in the legs and arms are common but can also be found in other parts of the body
  • Lymphocyte
    A white blood cell (leukocyte) produced in the bone marrow and found in blood and lymph tissue. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes produce antibodies, T lymphocytes help in killing tumor cells. T lymphocytes can activate B lymphocytes to start producing(...)
  • Lymphoma
    Cancer that begins in the immune system cells. There are two basic subtypes of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma, which is indicated by the presence of a cell type called Reed-Sternberg and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large and diverse group of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin(...)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI
    Imaging method based on radio waves and a magnet. The images produced by this method can show the difference between normal and diseased tissues.
  • Maintenance Therapy
    Treatment that prevents cancer may recur and may be given for a long time.
  • Malignant
    Cancerous (not begnin)
  • Mammography
    Use low-energy X-rays to detect suspicious breast tissue to prevent or diagnose breast cancer.
  • Margin (Surgical Margin)
    The border of the tumor tissue that is surgically removed. The margins are considered negative when cancer cells are not identified. The margins are considered positive when cancer cells are detected, which means that not all of the tumor has been removed and there is residual tumor.
  • Mastectomy
    Complete removal of the breast
  • Median Survival
    In the statistics the median is the value out of the group, with an equal number of values ​​preceded and followed. Median survival is the amount of time from the date of diagnosis or from the onset of treatment, such as cancer, that half of the patients in a group of patients diagnosed with(...)
  • Median Survival
    In the statistics the median is the value out of the group, with an equal number of values preceded and followed. Median survival is the amount of time from the date of diagnosis or from the onset of treatment, such as cancer, that half of the patients in a group of patients diagnosed with the(...)
  • Mediastinoscopy
    A surgical procedure in which organs and tissues are examined in the mediastinum. Mediastenum is the area between the two lungs that contains the heart, large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and lymph nodes. This procedure is usually done to get a tissue sample from the lymph nodes on the(...)
  • Melanoma
    A type of cancer that begins with melanocytes (cells that produce the pigment melanin). Cancer can begin in the skin but also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as the eye or intestines. It tends to spread to adjacent tissues, and can metastasize in the brain, lungs, bones, liver, and stomach.
  • Menopause
    Menopause is a normal condition that all women experience as they age. It is divided into three stages: (i) Perimenopause - occurs several years before the Menopause and begins when the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen. In the last two years of this process, when estrogen levels are(...)
  • Mesothelioma
    Cancer in the thin membrane surrounding the chest and the abdominal cavity.
  • Metastasectomy
    Metastasis removal surgery
  • Metastasis
    A cancerous growth in organs far from the primary tumor. Metastatic cells have the same characteristics as the original cancer cells, even if they are found in another organ. For example, tumor cells found in the lung can originate from a primary tumor located in the colon rather than a lung cancer
  • Metastatic Cancer
    A condition in which the primary tumor spreads to various organs in the body.
  • Micro Satellite Instability, MSI
    Mutations that accumulate in the DNA, in areas called "satellites" (repeating DNA sequences), as a result of errors occurring during DNA repair processes in a cell. Genetic instability can turn a normal cell into a cancerous cell.
  • Micrometastasis
    A small number of cancer cells that have spread from the primary tumor to other parts of the body and are too small to be seen in a screening or diagnostic test.
  • Micrometastasis
    A small number of cancer cells that have spread from the primary tumor to other parts of the body and are too small to be detected in a screening or diagnostic test.
  • Microsatellite Stable, MSS
    When the tumor does not show the accumulation of mutations in the DNA "lien" regions (DNA regions with repetitive sequences).
  • Morbidity
    Refers to a disease or symptom of the disease, or the amount of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to medical problems caused by treatment
  • Morphin
    Pain reliever for moderate to severe pain.
  • MRI
    A method of imaging based on radio waves and a magnet. The images produced by this method can show the difference between normal tissues and affected tissues
  • MUC1
    A marker which is a protein called MUC1, which is normally present in mucous membranes and protects the body from foreign factors. A high blood level of the CA125 marker may indicate ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or other cancers
  • Mutation
    A change to the DNA sequence in the cell. Mutations can be caused by errors during cell division, or they can be caused by exposure to substances harmful to DNA (free radicals, asbestos, etc.). Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect. When they appear in egg or sperm cells,(...)
  • Myalgia
    muscle pain
  • Myelome
    Cancer originating from plasma cells in the blood. Plasma cells are young cells before they differentiate into B cells that produce antibodies.
  • NCI
    The National Cancer Institute is is federal agency in the US Department of Health responsible for research and training of cancer disease
  • Neck Dissection
    Surgery to remove metastatic lymph nodes from the head and neck area to prevent tumor expansion by an ENT specialist in head and neck surgery.
  • Negative Margin
    No Margin
  • Neoadjuvant
    Primary treatment of cancer (chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal, etc.) which can be given prior to a major procedure or treatment, such as surgery.
  • Neoplasm
    The mass of cells which grows abnormally. This mass may be benign (non-cancerous), or malignant (cancer). Also called "tumor"
  • Node
    A small amount of cells forming circular tissue.
  • Node-Negative
    Lymph node not infected with cancer cells
  • Node-Positive
    Lymp node infected with cancer cells
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    Cancer that begins in the immune system cells. There are two basic subtypes of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma, which is indicated by the presence of a cell type called Reed-Sternberg and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large and diverse group of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin(...)
  • Non Small Cell Lung Cancer, NSCLC
    A group of lung cancers that are Non-Small Cell type. Treatment and prognosis are similar to all cancers in this group. This cancer group constitutes for about 85% of all lung cancers.
  • Objective Response
    A measurable response. For example, a response to chemotherapy.
  • Oncogene
    A gene that, when mutated, enhances the formation of a cancerous tumor or accelerates cancer growth.
  • Oncologist
    A physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
  • Oncology
    A branch of medicine that specializes with cancer diagnosis and treatment.
  • osteolytic metastases
  • Osteosarcoma
    Sarcoma is a type of a cancer that begeins in the bone. It usually appears in arms or legs.
  • Outpatient
    Treatment without hospitalization.
  • Overall Survival (OS)
    The time from the date of diagnosis or from the onset of the disease, such as cancer, that patients diagnosed with the disease are still alive. In a clinical trial, overall survival is measured in order to assess how well a new treatment works.
  • Overexpression
    A condition in which the cell produces more proteins than normal. For example, breast cancer cells or stomach cancer cells produce the HER2 protein in access.
  • Palliative
    ראה ערך טיפול תומך.
  • Palliative care treatment
    Palliative care is a medical treatment whose purpose is usually to alleviate the patient's suffering in cases where the disease can not be cured. Awareness of such treatments is increasing.
  • Pancreatic cancer
    Pancreatic cancer occurs when cancer cells develop in the tissues from which the pancreas is made. This type of cancer is aggressive, since most of the patients are diagnosed in an advanced stage, where the disease is considered incurable, for the most part. This type of cancer is hard to(...)
  • Pancreatic cancer
    Pancreatic cancer occurs when cancer cells develop in the tissues from which the pancreas is made. This type of cancer is aggressive, since most of the patients are diagnosed in an advanced stage, where the disease is considered incurable, for the most part. This type of cancer is hard to(...)
  • Parenteral
    Inserting a drug into the body outside the digestive system:  Intravenous IV injections, intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (subcortical) subcutaneous administration.
  • Partial Response
    A decrease in the size of the tumor in response to treatment
  • Pathological Fracture
    Bone fracture caused by disease. Patients with bone metastases are particularly prone to pathological fractures, since these tumors tend to cause bone destruction. Sometimes the bone is broken before the patient is diagnosed with cancer.
  • Pathologist
    A doctor who identifies diseases by examining cells and tissues under a microscope
  • PD-1
    A protein found on cytotoxic T cells that kill other cells. When PD-1 on T cells binds to a protein called PD-L1 on cancer cells, the cytotoxic T cells do not attack the tumor. It is an escape mechanism of cancer from the immune system. T cells are part of the immune system. For further(...)
  • PD-L1
    This protein is at a high level in various cancers. When PD-L1 on a cancer cell binds to the PD-1 protein, cytotoxic T cells (cytotoxic cells) - the cytotoxic T cells do not kill the tumor. This is the mechanism of "escape" of cancer from the immune system. For further reading, see the value(...)
  • Pelvic Exenteration
    Surgery to remove the lower colon, anus, and bladder. The goal of the surgery is to create openings through which the urine and excrement will come out of the body. In women, the cervix, vagina, ovaries, adjoining lymph nodes are also removed.
  • Peritoneal Cancer
    Peritoneal cancer, peritoneum. Peritoneal - the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity.
  • Peritoneum
    The membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity
  • Peritoneum
    The membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity
  • PET
    A radioactive substance is injected into the subject (e.g., radioactive sugar called FDG) and enters tissues with high sugar intake. Cancerous tumors consume the radioactive material.
  • PET CT
    A test that involves a CT scan and a PET test to diagnose cancerous tumors, but it also has other uses.
  • Pharmacogenetics
    A field that studies the effect of a person's genes on how he or she responds to drugs.
  • Pharmacology
    A field that deals with the effect of a drug on the body. The field also focuses on research on how the body copes with the drug, for example, what dosage of the drug in the blood, and how long the body is cleaned of the drug and more.
  • Placebo
    A substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value. Common placebos include sugar pills), saline injections, sham surgery, and other.
  • Platelets
    Platelets are cells in the blood that accumulate in an area where blood vessels are damaged to stop bleeding.
  • Pleural Effusion
    Build-up of excess fluid between the thin layers of the tissue surrounding the lung and chest cavity.
  • Poly ADP-ribose polymerase, PARP
    A protein in a cell that participates in processes such as DNA repair and cell death. Today, PARP inhibitors are used as an anti-cancer treatment.
  • Polyp
    Accumulated cells protrude into the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract.
  • Polypectomy
    Surgery to remove polyps.
  • Positive Margins
     
  • Positron Emission Tomography, PET
    A test that involves a CT scan and a PET test to diagnose cancerous tumors, but it also has other uses. CT scan - see “CT” value. PET testing - A radioactive substance is injected into the subject (e.g., radioactive sugar called FDG) and enters tissues with high sugar intake. Cancerous(...)
  • Post menopause
    Post menopause - the period after menopause and symptoms of Perimenopause began to ease. This is a consideration when making a therapeutic decision in women with cancer.
  • Postoperative
    Post-surgery
  • Perimenopause
    During Menopause, Perimenopause - occurs several years before the Menopause and begins when the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen. In the last two years of this process, when estrogen levels are low, symptoms of hot flashes and night sweats begin
  • Precision Medicine, Personalized Medicine
    In cancer, personalized medicine uses the patient's specific disease characteristics and medical background to form a personalized therapy program
  • Progesterion Receptor Test
    A laboratory test to determine if the cancer cells have progesterone receptors (proteins in the cell to which progesterone is attached). If the cells have progesterone receptors, they may need this hormone to grow, which may affect how cancer is treated.
  • Progesteron
    A hormone produced by the body and plays a role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. There are breast tumors that overreact to the progesterone receptor and therefore these tumors depend on this hormone to grow.
  • Progesteron Receptor Negative, PR-
    Tumor cells containing a low amount of progesterone receptor.
  • Progesteron Receptor Positive, PR+
    Describes tumor cells in which a high amount of progesterone receptor binds to the progesterone hormone. Usually these cells will stop growing when patients with hormones block the progesterone binding to its receptor. Also called PR +.
  • Prognosis
    The course of the disease, the chance of recovery or the recurrence of the disease.
  • Progression Free Survival
    The length of time during and after the treatment in which the patient lives with the disease and its condition does not worsen.
  • Prophylactic
    Preventive. Prophylactic treatment is a preventative treatment, a protective treatment
  • Prophylactic Mastectomy
    Prophylactic surgery do decrease the risk of developing breast cancer which one or both breasts are removed before the disease develops. According to the National Cancer Institute, NCI, prophylactic mastectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation may reduce the risk of developing breast(...)
  • Prophylactic Oophorectomy
    Ovarianctomy to prevent ovarian cancer and breast cancer
  • Quality of Life, QOL
    The general enjoyment of life. Many clinical trials assess how cancer and cancer treatments impact life. These studies measure aspects of the individual's sense of well-being and his ability to perform daily life activities.
  • Radical cystectomy
    Surgery to remove all the bladder and tissues and organs nearby.
  • Radical Hysterectomy
    Surgery to remove the uterus, cervix and part of the vagina. Ovaries, tubular tubes. The lymph nodes near the uterus may be removed.
  • Radical Hysterectomy
    Surgery to remove the uterus, cervix and part of the vagina. Ovaries, tubular tubes. The lymph nodes near the uterus may be removed.
  • Radical lymph node dissection
    A surgical procedure to remove most or all of the lymph nodes from the area around the tumor. The lymph nodes are then examined under a microscope to see if cancer cells have spread to them. Radical lymph node dissection
  • Radical Mesectomy
    Breast cancer surgery where the breast, chest muscles, and all the lymph nodes under the arm are removed. Radical excision is performed only when the tumor has spread to the chest muscles
  • Radical Neck Dissection
    A rare medical procedure during which the lymph nodes are cut in the head and neck area, as well as adjacent tissues and organs such as muscles, veins, nerves and more. A procedure in which a thin needle called a needle in the spinal column is inserted into the lower part of the spine to(...)
  • Radiotherapy
    The use of high-energy radiation from X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and cause tumor growth. Radiation can be external or internal when a radioactive substance is placed inside the body near the tumor (brachytherapy). Systemic radiotherapy that(...)
  • Receptor
    A condition in which there is one or more diseases in addition to the main disease. Also called "background diseases".
  • Recurrent Cancer
     
  • Recurrent Cancer, Relapse
    A cancer that usually comes back after a period of time when it could not be identified. Cancer may return to the same place as the original (primary) tumor or elsewhere in the body.
  • Red Blood Cell, RBC
    A type of blood cell produced in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which leads oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of red blood cells in a blood is usually performed in order to diagnose physiological(...)
  • Refractory
    Which does not respond to treatment. Cancer that does not respond to treatment may be resistant at the beginning of treatment or it may become resistant during treatment.
  • Remission
    Complete reduction or disappearance of cancer symptoms. In partial remission some of the symptoms disappear as opposed to a complete remission in which all symptoms disappear, although the cancerous tumor may still be present in the body.
  • Remission
    Complete reduction or disappearance of cancer symptoms. In partial remission some of the symptoms disappear as opposed to a complete remission in which all symptoms disappear, although the cancerous tumor may still be present in the body.
  • Resectable
    Which can be surgically removed
  • Residual
    Remaining after the greater part or quantity has gone. In cancer, residual cancer cells are cells left after attempts to remove the cancer by surgery, radiation etc. Residual
  • Resilience, Resistance
    Does not respond to treatment. Cancer that does not respond to treatment may be resistant at the beginning of treatment or it may become resistant during treatment.
  • Response Rate
    The percentage of patients in whom the cancer has decreased or disappeared after treatment.
  • Retrospective Study
    A retrospective study looks to the history and raises research questions about a group of subjects who have already participated in a treatment/trial/disease in the past. For example, checking the presence of mutation in the נןbiopsy of people who have participated in a clinical trial in the(...)
  • Rhabdomyoscoma
    Sarcoma, a cancer of muscle tissue.
  • ROS1
    A protein involved in gene rearrangement. Different cancers have mutations in ROS1.
  • Ewing's sarcoma
    A type of cancer that begins in the bones or soft tissues of the body commonly is diagnose in young adults.
  • Screening
    Screenings scan for disease presence when there are still no symptoms to diagnose diseases at an early stage and increase the chance of cure. Breast cancer, colonoscopy, PAP and HPV (cervical cancer) are examples of Screening tests. Genetic testing to examine a person's risk of developing(...)
  • Screening
    Screenings scan for disease presence when there are still no symptoms to diagnose diseases at an early stage and increase the chance of cure. Breast cancer, colonoscopy, PAP and HPV (cervical cancer) are examples of Screening tests. Genetic testing to examine a person's risk of developing(...)
  • Screening Mammogram
    X-ray examination of breasts to prevent breast cancer in the absence of disease symptoms.
  • Second Line Treatment
    The treatment series given to the patient after the first series ("First Line") stopped working.
  • Second primary cancer
    When an tumor appears after the patient has had a tumor in the past. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can cause the second tumor.
  • Secondary Cancer
    A term used to describe cancer that has spread (metastases) from where it started to another part of the body. For example, cancer cells may spread from the intestines (primary cancer) to form new tumors in the liver (secondary cancer).
  • Senital Node
    The first lymph node in the lymphatic system to which the tumor drains. Tumor cells can spread through the lymphatic system
  • Senital Node Test
     
  • Sentinel lymph node
    The first lymph node to which the cancerous tumor drains. The cancer cells in the tumor can spread to another tissue through the lymphatic system, which is made up of tubes and lymph nodes (“Lymphatic System”).
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
    Since tumor cells can spread through the lymphatic system, it is necessary to check whether the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node in the lymphatic system to which the tumor drains) is infected with cancer cells. The sentinel lymph node is identified by injecting a radioactive substance(...)
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer, SCLC
    Cancer cells look small in the shape of an ellipse when viewed under a microscope.
  • Solid Tumors
    Tumor that are developed in a tissue, such as breast cancer, colon cancerGastric Cancer (in compare to not visible, such as, leukemia and these are called “Hematological cancers” as they developed in the blood formation path).
  • somatotropin
    A protein produced and secreted by the pituitary gland that is responsible for controlling body growth and glucose and gat metabolism.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Cancer that begins with squamous cells that are flat cells that look like fish scales. The dandruff cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, in the hollow organ wall (e.g. intestines, rectum, stomach), and the lining of the digestive system. This cancer appears in the(...)
  • Squamous Cell Sarcinoma
    Cancer that begins with squamous cells that are flat cells that look like fish scales. The dandruff cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, in the hollow organ wall (e.g. intestines, rectum, stomach), and the lining of the digestive system. This cancer appears in the(...)
  • Stable Disease
    A disease that remains stable, for example when the tumor is not getting smaller or larger.
  • Stage 4
    An advanced stage in which the tumor spreads and sends metastases to distant organs
  • Stage IV
    An advanced stage in which the tumor spreads and sends metastases to distant organs
  • Stage/Staging
    Evaluations and measures to assess the size and extent of the spread of the cancer in order to plan the best treatment. The patient is usually assessed according to a system that quantifies the cancer by its size and if metastases are formed in various organs from the original tumor.
  • Standard Of Care
    Treatment is accepted by experts for a particular type of disease.
  • Statistically significant
    Statistical significance is the probability that relations between two or more variables is not random.
  • Stoma
    An incision in the inner area of the body to the outside. For example, in Stomatomy, the intestines are brought from the anus to the abdominal wall to which the bag connects the intestinal secretions and requires a daily replacement. This bag is not visible and not detectable to an outside observer.
  • Suppressor
    Genes that slow cell division participate in the process of correcting DNA errors, or that signal the cell do dies. When tumor suppressor genes fail to function properly, cells can get out of control and become cancerous.
  • Survival Rate
    The percent of people who survive a disease such as cancer for a specified amount of time
  • Symptom
    Symptom. A physical or mental problem that a person experiences which may indicate illness. Symptoms cannot always be seen and measured in medical tests. Examples of symptoms are headaches, coughing, difficulty walking, fatigue and more.
  • Systemic
    Treatment that comes to all systems and organs in the body. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy. It affects normal dividing cells, not just cancer cells, and hence the many side effects associated with this type of treatment.
  • Systemic Treatment
    Treatment that comes to all systems and organs in the body. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy. It affects normal dividing cells, not just cancer cells, and hence the many side effects associated with this type of treatment.
  • Targeted Therapy
    Targeted Therapy works by targeting specific genes or proteins to help stop cancer growth and spread. Herceptin, Herceptin®, for breast cancer is an anti-HER2 antibody that belongs to this family of treatments.
  • TEMODAR®
    TEMODAR® contains a medicine called temozolomide. This medicine is an antitumour agent for the treatment of specific forms of brain tumours. TEMODAR® belongs to a group of medicines called cytotoxic or chemotherapy medicines. Therapeutic group: Antineoplastic preparation. TEMODAR® capsules(...)
  • Teratogen
    Material, disease or environmental factor that has an adverse effect on the development of the fetus in the womb. Familiar teratogenes include Thalidomide drug, Rubella virus, or cytomegalovirus CMV, or X-rays.
  • Therapeutic Index
    Risk vs. benefit of treatment. Used as a safety measure for treatments.
  • Third Line Treatment
    The treatment series given to the patient after the second treatment line ("Second Line") stopped working.
  • Thrombocyt
     
  • Thrombocytopenia
    A low number of platelets in the blood because the body produces antibodies against them. Platelets form a blood clot when there is damage to the blood vessels and therefore this condition can lead to constant bleeding.
  • Thrombosis
    Blood clot formation in blood vessels.
  • Tomogrophy
    A imaging procedure in which a computer is connected to an x-ray machine and creates a series of detailed pictures of different areas of the body. Each tissue in the body absorbs radiation and returns radiation differently. The pictures are taken from different angles and are then processed to(...)
  • Tomogrophy
    A imaging procedure in which a computer is connected to an x-ray machine and creates a series of detailed pictures of different areas of the body. Each tissue in the body absorbs radiation and returns radiation differently. The pictures are taken from different angles and are then processed to(...)
  • Transformation
    A process in which normal cells become cancerous
  • Transrectal endoscopic ultrasound, TRUS
    An imaging procedure for the evaluating the size and penetration of tumors in the anus and rectum.  
  • Triple Negative
    Sub-population of the total population of breast cancer patients. The cancerous growth in the patients belonging to this population does not reflect the receptors of HER2, estrogen, and progesterone. Breast cancers are currently being cataloged according to the presence of these receptors.
  • True positive
    A true result that has been verified
  • Tube Enteral Feeding
    Inserting a tube into the digestive tract for feeding purposes.
  • Tumor
    A cluster of cells that grow abnormally. Not every tumor is malignant. Tumor can be benign. In time a benign tumor can transform into  a malignant tissue.
  • Marker
    Biomarker in the blood. Examples of markers: CA-125 for ovarian cancer and CA-72-4 for adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
    Genes that slow cell division participate in the process of correcting DNA errors, or that signal the cell do dies. When tumor suppressor genes fail to function properly, cells can get out of control and become cancerous.
  • Tyrosine Kinase
    A group of protein molecules that are important, among other things, for cell division, metabolism and cell death. These molecules play an important role in the development of cancer and therefore pharma companies develop molecules to inhibit them.
  • Ultrasound
    An imaging technique in which sound waves transmitted to the area of ​​the body being tested at a frequency that the human ear can not hear. The wave returns to a device that processes it into a picture. This is a safe test unlike X-rays or CT, in which the subject is not exposed to ionizing(...)
  • Upper GI endoscopy
    Examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach and duodenum). During the exam, a small camera located at the tip of a flexible tube, is inserted through the mouth called a gastroscope
  • Venous thrombosis, VT
    Blood clot formation in the veins..
  • Whipple procedure pancreaticoduodenectomy
    Pancreas head removing surgery, together with a part of the small intestine (the duodenum), gallbladder and the biliary and lymph ducts. The surgery is possible when the tumor is small in size and has not yet metastasized. When the tumor is located in the pancreas body or tail, a resection of(...)
  • White Blood Cell
    WBC - A type of blood cell produced in the bone marrow and found in the blood. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which leads oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Checking the number of red blood cells in a blood is usually performed in order to diagnose(...)
  • Whole Blood Count
    A test in which the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the blood is counted. The amount of hemoglobin (a protein in a red blood cell that binds oxygen) and the hematocrit (the volume of red blood cells relative to the total volume of the blood sample, measured as a(...)
  • Generic Drug
    Generic drugs are copies of other drugs that are already in the market. Their use, effects, side effects, management pathway, risks, safety and efficacy are like the original medicine. In other words, their pharmacological effect is similar to the original drugs. It is important to note that(...)
  • Cell death, or “cellular suicide”. Most cells in the body have a specific role, they divide in an organized manner and their life cycle is defined, thus they die and new cells are generated. Cancer cells miss both the apoptosis mechanism and the mechanism in charged of their normal division.

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