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Stage 4 Cancer

Stage 4, Stage IV metastatic cancer

“Metastases” is the medical term for describing a condition where a tumor originating in a certain organ, “primary tumor”, is identified in another organ or in a distant location from the original organ, e.g., metastases of breast cancer can be found in the lungs, brain, bones and liver.

It is important to note, metastases are the same type of the original primary tumor, even if its location is in distant organs and so are the treatments regarded as such, for example, a treatment for a metastatic lung cancer that has spread to the liver, is determined by the treatment for metastatic lung cancer and not by the treatment for liver cancer.

Metastases formation

Cancer cells of the primary tumor can be released into the bloodstream and lymphatic system and circulate to distant organs or adjacent organs and tissues to the primary tumor and “settle” in them and grow.

There are different types of cancer which is known where metastases can be formed, for example,

  • Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs
  • Lung cancer can spread to the brain, bones, liver and kidney
  • Prostate cancer can spread to the bones
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer can spread to the liver and lungs
Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs
Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs

Stage IV metastatic cancer and recovery

In the vast majority of the metastatic cases, the treatments do not cure. Treatment goals are slowing tumor growth rate, prolonging life and reducing the symptoms of the disease, improving the quality of life of the patient.

The efficacy of the treatments is affected by many factors, among them are the type of cancer, number of metastases (also called “lesions”) and their location, how much cancer the patient has in his or her body, growth rate of the tumor lesions, medical history of the patient, background diseases, microenvironment between the tumor cells themselves, resistance the tumor has developed to previous treatments and other.

Advanced treatments and clinical trials for stage 4

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) highlights the fact that for a certain group of metastatic cancer patients, the best treatment option is to join one of the many clinical trials existing worldwide aiming to increase their chances of therapeutic success.

This is also recommended by the USA national comprehensive cancer network, NCCN,  (USA national comprehensive cancer network)

“Patients with cancer should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials during all aspects of their diagnosis and treatment”

Currently, every patient will be offered the standard protocols described above. Sometimes the oncologist may suggest integrating these therapies with trials carried out in the Institute.

Advances in cancer therapies may be found in clinical trials prescribing cutting edge, interesting drugs, some of which have already been recognized by the FDA (US Food & Drug Administration) as “breakthrough treatments” and require further information input before being finally and fully approved.

An entire world of clinical trials and compassionate drugs and treatments are open and available worldwide. It is important to know which cutting edge treatments exist which patients can gain far more from them than the standard care offered.

For most patients with stage 4 metastatic cancer, current treatments are insufficiently effective. This gives rise to the need for innovative strategies with greater efficacy in fighting the disease.

Read our publications on innovative treatments for stage 4 metastatic cancer:

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Improve therapeutic outcomes, prolong life and quality of life are our main business. We support access to and expand cancer treatments beyond the standard of care, with the most advanced and innovative treatment options in the world, personally matching the individual cancer patient’s medical condition and with the support of top tier oncologists.

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In which side the primary colon cancer is located? Important for you to know

Although we think of as one organ, it’s very different from left to right. The biology of what happens in the colon is very different from left to right and that has implications on the cancer as well.

Patients with right-sided colon cancer have poorer prognosis than those with left-sided disease regardless of the stage of the disease at diagnosis or the course of treatment the patient has received and therefore requires a different approach, a more aggressive one when coming to treat these patients.

Surgeons report that patients with tumors on the right side are harvested greater lymph node during their operations.

Colorectal cancer can be characterized by the location of the primary tumor being within the colon. Over the past few years, the distinction between right-sided and left-sided colon cancer has been brought into focus due to their having different outcomes, different prognoses and different clinical responses to chemotherapy.

For metastatic colon cancer, clinical studies now provide strong evidence about the prognostic and the predictive value of the primary tumor’s location. This is predictive for treatment outcomes which are poorer in right-sided colon cancers. Although tumor location is not included within the international guidelines for metastatic colon cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, NCCN, guidelines recommend the use of certain drugs for the treatment of left-sided colon cancer.

In recent years, the interest in identifying the differences between patients with right-sided colon and left-sided colon has been increasing, as has the potential for using the primary tumor’s location to improve the personalization of systemic treatments.

TRIAL•IN Pharma provides a unique, personalized service for patients with metastatic cancer and brain tumors, which reveals innovative and advanced cancer treatments around the world and helps to achieve them.

Call us 24/7 toll free to find out if our services match your current medical and clinical condition:

+44.2082.426.039

or leave us a message on our website and we’ll get back to you shortly:

www.trial-in.com

TRIAL•IN Pharma – We do not give up on life!

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Improving therapeutic success, extending life and quality of life are our main business. We extend to metastatic cancer patients and patients with brain tumors, the most advanced treatment options in the world and the best experts in Israel and abroad.

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