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Stage 4 Cancer

Stage 4, Stage IV metastatic cancer

“Metastases cancer” or stage 4 cancer, is the medical term for describing a condition where a tumor originating in a certain organ, “primary tumor”, is identified in another organ or in a distant location from the original organ, e.g., metastases of breast cancer can be found in the lungs, brain, bones and liver.

It is important to note, metastases are the same type of the original primary tumor, even if its location is in distant organs and so are the treatments regarded as such, for example, a treatment for a metastatic lung cancer that has spread to the liver, is determined by the treatment for metastatic lung cancer and not by the treatment for liver cancer.

Metastases formation

Cancer cells of the primary tumor can be released into the bloodstream and lymphatic system and circulate to distant organs or adjacent organs and tissues to the primary tumor and “settle” in them and grow.

There are different types of cancer which is known where metastases can be formed, for example,

  • Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs
  • Lung cancer can spread to the brain, bones, liver and kidney
  • Prostate cancer can spread to the bones
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer can spread to the liver and lungs
Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs
Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs

Stage IV metastatic cancer and recovery

In the vast majority of the metastatic cases, the treatments do not cure. Treatment goals are slowing tumor growth rate, prolonging life and reducing the symptoms of the disease, improving the quality of life of the patient.

The efficacy of the treatments is affected by many factors, among them are the type of cancer, number of metastases (also called “lesions”) and their location, how much cancer the patient has in his or her body, growth rate of the tumor lesions, medical history of the patient, background diseases, microenvironment between the tumor cells themselves, resistance the tumor has developed to previous treatments and other.

Advanced treatments and clinical trials for stage 4

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) highlights the fact that for a certain group of metastatic cancer patients, the best treatment option is to join one of the many clinical trials existing worldwide aiming to increase their chances of therapeutic success.

This is also recommended by the USA national comprehensive cancer network, NCCN,  (USA national comprehensive cancer network)

“Patients with cancer should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials during all aspects of their diagnosis and treatment”

Currently, every patient will be offered the standard protocols described above. Sometimes the oncologist may suggest integrating these therapies with trials carried out in the Institute.

Advances in cancer therapies may be found in clinical trials prescribing cutting edge, interesting drugs, some of which have already been recognized by the FDA (US Food & Drug Administration) as “breakthrough treatments” and require further information input before being finally and fully approved.

An entire world of clinical trials and compassionate drugs and treatments are open and available worldwide. It is important to know which cutting edge treatments exist which patients can gain far more from them than the standard care offered.

For most patients with stage 4 metastatic cancer, current treatments are insufficiently effective. This gives rise to the need for innovative strategies with greater efficacy in fighting the disease.

Read our publications on innovative treatments for stage 4 metastatic cancer:

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Colorectal Cancer Patients May Live Longer With Coffee

Background – Colorectal cancer and coffee

Several compounds found in coffee possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects, which may contribute to anticancer activity, including colorectal cancer.

Epidemiological studies have identified associations between increased coffee consumption and decreased recurrence and mortality in colorectal cancer patients.

About the Study

This prospective observational study included 1,171 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer.

The study aimed to evaluate coffee consumption both on survival and time until disease progresses.

Results

  • Increased consumption of coffee was associated with decreased risk of cancer progression and death. Participants who consumed 2 to 3 cups of coffee per day did better compared with those who did not drink coffee.
  • Participants who consumed at least 4 cups of coffee per day did even better.
  • Significant associations were noted for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee.

Conclusion

Coffee consumption may be associated with reduced risk of disease progression and death in patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer.

The best treatment for a cancer patient is to get the most advanced cancer drugs in advanced stages of development. There, the hope and the chance to extend life go far beyond the standard protocols.

Contact us to find out what is the best treatment for YOU

TRIAL•IN Pharma

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For further reading>>

Colorectal Cancer and Coffee Consumption
Colorectal Cancer and Coffee Consumption

 

About Colorectal Cancer

The term “Colorectal cancer”, also known as “Bowel cancer”, “Colon cancer” or “Rectal cancer”, is related to any cancer which starts in the intestine or the rectum.

Often this cancer starts with a growth of a polyp in the intestine or the rectum. Locating and removing polyps may prevent the appearance of colorectal cancer and this is the reason for the importance of early detection.

The probability of developing colorectal cancer in the course of a person’s life lays currently at 1 of every 22 persons. This cancer is one of the three leaders of cancer mortality.

Colorectal tumors may be either malignant or benign. If it is malignant there is a chance that it may metastasize to other organs either adjacent or distant from the intestine and cause an injury to them.

Colorectal cancer starts when some cells which constitute the colon or rectum start growing and proliferating without control. This abnormal growth creates a tumor that is cancerous.

To improve patients’ chances, the American Society for Clinical Oncology, ASCO, that includes various specialists in its panel, such as oncologists, radiologists, gastrologists among others, guides oncologists to inform colorectal cancer patients in all topics related to clinical trials in every stage of their disease.

The National Cancer Institute, NCI, of the United States, stresses that for colon and rectal cancer patients, the preferred treatment option is to join one of the many clinical trials around the world and thus increase the chances of success over the standard protocols.

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