Stage 4 Cancer

Stage 4, Stage IV metastatic cancer

“Metastases cancer” or stage 4 cancer, is the medical term for describing a condition where a tumor originating in a certain organ, “primary tumor”, is identified in another organ or in a distant location from the original organ, e.g., metastases of breast cancer can be found in the lungs, brain, bones and liver.

It is important to note, metastases are the same type of the original primary tumor, even if its location is in distant organs and so are the treatments regarded as such, for example, a treatment for a metastatic lung cancer that has spread to the liver, is determined by the treatment for metastatic lung cancer and not by the treatment for liver cancer.

Metastases formation

Cancer cells of the primary tumor can be released into the bloodstream and lymphatic system and circulate to distant organs or adjacent organs and tissues to the primary tumor and “settle” in them and grow.

There are different types of cancer which is known where metastases can be formed, for example,

  • Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs
  • Lung cancer can spread to the brain, bones, liver and kidney
  • Prostate cancer can spread to the bones
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer can spread to the liver and lungs
Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs
Breast cancer can spread to the bones, brain, liver and lungs

Stage IV metastatic cancer and recovery

In the vast majority of the metastatic cases, the treatments do not cure. Treatment goals are slowing tumor growth rate, prolonging life and reducing the symptoms of the disease, improving the quality of life of the patient.

The efficacy of the treatments is affected by many factors, among them are the type of cancer, number of metastases (also called “lesions”) and their location, how much cancer the patient has in his or her body, growth rate of the tumor lesions, medical history of the patient, background diseases, microenvironment between the tumor cells themselves, resistance the tumor has developed to previous treatments and other.

Advanced treatments and clinical trials for stage 4

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) highlights the fact that for a certain group of metastatic cancer patients, the best treatment option is to join one of the many clinical trials existing worldwide aiming to increase their chances of therapeutic success.

This is also recommended by the USA national comprehensive cancer network, NCCN,  (USA national comprehensive cancer network)

“Patients with cancer should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials during all aspects of their diagnosis and treatment”

Currently, every patient will be offered the standard protocols described above. Sometimes the oncologist may suggest integrating these therapies with trials carried out in the Institute.

Advances in cancer therapies may be found in clinical trials prescribing cutting edge, interesting drugs, some of which have already been recognized by the FDA (US Food & Drug Administration) as “breakthrough treatments” and require further information input before being finally and fully approved.

An entire world of clinical trials and compassionate drugs and treatments are open and available worldwide. It is important to know which cutting edge treatments exist which patients can gain far more from them than the standard care offered.

For most patients with stage 4 metastatic cancer, current treatments are insufficiently effective. This gives rise to the need for innovative strategies with greater efficacy in fighting the disease.

Read our publications on innovative treatments for stage 4 metastatic cancer:

To check if our service suits your case
We need to talk

Improve therapeutic outcomes, prolong life and quality of life, is our main business.
We support access to and expand cancer treatments beyond the standard of care, with the most advanced and innovative treatment options in the world, personally matching the individual cancer patient’s medical condition and with the support of top tier oncologists.

Article categories

קטגוריות המאמרים

Popular topics


Gastric Cancer – Zolbetuximab Prolongs Survival

About Locally Advanced Unresectable Metastatic Gastric Cancer and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer (GEJ)

Gastric cancer is the fifth most diagnosed cancer worldwide.

Signs and symptoms can include indigestion or heartburn; pain or discomfort in the abdomen; nausea and vomiting; diarrhea or constipation; bloating of the stomach after meals; and loss of appetite and sensation of food getting stuck in the throat while eating.

Signs of more advanced gastric cancer can include unexplained weight loss; weakness and fatigue; and vomiting blood or having blood in the stool.

Risk factors associated with gastric cancer can include older age, male gender, family history, H. pylori infection, smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Because early-stage gastric cancer symptoms frequently overlap with more common stomach-related conditions, the disease is often diagnosed in the advanced or metastatic stage, or once it has spread from the tumor’s origin to other body tissues or organs.

Gastric and GEJ cancers still have very limited treatment options available for patients with an advanced diagnosis.

About the Spotlight Study

Spotlight is a global, multicenter, double-blind, randomized study that is investigating the efficacy and safety of zolbetuximab.

Approximately 566 patients have been enrolled in the study.

In arm A, patients received combination with zolbetuximab and mFOLFOX6.

After mFOLFOX6 is complete, patients are permitted to receive fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid until the patient meets the study treatment discontinuation criteria.

Patients in arm B are administered matching placebo and mFOLFOX6 and may also receive 5-FU and folinic acid after mFOLFOX6 completion.

The study is ongoing at 220 locations worldwide.

It is expected to be completed in January 2025.

In addition to Spotlight, zolbetuximab is also being investigated in combination with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) vs placebo and CAPOX in patients with CLDN18.2-positive, HER2-negative, locally advanced unresectable or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma (GLOW; NCT03653507).

Spotlight Results in Gastric Cancer and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

Initial results from the phase 3 spotlight study show that the study met its primary and key secondary end point of the duration of the period patients did not progress (also called “Progression-Free Survival, PFS) and Survival.

Treatment with zolbetuximab plus chemotherapy led to statistically significant progression-free survival (PFS) improvement in patients with CLDN18.2-positive, HER2-negative, locally advanced unresectable or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma.

These topline results further support the role of CLDN18.2 as an emerging biomarker in gastric and GEJ cancer.

Talk to us so see if we can help you to actually get the most advanced treatments


Because we, do not give up on life!

Contact us 24/7 –

Call center +44.2082.426.039

Read more about Gastric cancer >>


No Cost service compatibility check
Please fill in the details and we will back to you as soon as possible

Improving therapeutic success, extending life and quality of life are our main business. We extend to metastatic cancer patients and patients with brain tumors, the most advanced treatment options in the world and the best experts in Israel and abroad.

Article categories

קטגוריות המאמרים

Popular topics